System Security Practices in Different Organization Scenario's

System Security Practices in Different Organization Scenario
System Security Practices in Different Organization Scenario

Question 3 involves using a hex editor. The question can  be done  using either Windows, Mac OS/X, or Linux. If you have  a choice, please use Windows. Marked out of 60.

  1. Sometimes it is useful to be  able to tell if a credit card  number is valid or not. For each of the  following credit card  numbers, perform the  Luhn check  algorithm to get the  sum (see the  tutorial clip on Blackboard), indicate if the  credit card  number is valid and if it is not, what would the valid credit card  number be?  Please show your work.
a. 4550  2081  6375 1768
  b.   5491  3865  6189 8631
  c.   4611  1153  6729 8795
  d.   1234  5678  9098 7654

2.   Let’s see what we can find by using some network tools.

a.   Let’s  see what  we  can  find  using  whois.  Go  to  https://ping.eu  select WHOIS  and  enter  walmart.ca (Walmart  Canada). Be  sure to click  on  the  Full Info box and  enter  the  captcha to access the  details. What  do you see (cut and paste the  details into  your answer)? How could  good  guys and  bad  guys make use of this information?

b.  Let’s see what  Ping does. Go to  http:ping.eu, select Ping and  enter mit.edu (Massachusetts Institute of Technology). What  do you see? How could good guys and bad guys make  use of this information?

c.   Now  let’s  see what   is  the   function  of  the   tool  traceroute.  Go  to http://www.monitis.com/traceroute/  and    enter    the   URL   for   the   Sydney, Australia  website  (in  English)  –  www.cityofsydney.nsw.gov.au This  will  give you the  three  paths: one  each from starting in North America, Europe, and  Asia to the  web  servers for the  City  of Sydney. Click  the  tabs for the  three  starting points and  look at the  corresponding map  to observe some of the  hops that  the data  made in its journey.   Be sure to scroll down  to see the  list  of the  hops (do not  just rely on  just the  maps). Comment on  what  you  see. Is there  anything surprising in the results?

d.   For each of the three  paths, find the LAST IP address given in the list of hops (not from  the  maps). To find the  IP address, let  your cursor hover  over the name of the particular hop (IP address will appear).   Then  go to http://whatismyipaddress.com/ and  in the  grey  box  at  the  top  right of the  page, enter  the  IP address. Look at the  result to find the  geographical location (scroll down to see a map).  For each of the three  routes, give the IP addresses and  the city where  the path ends for each route?

e.   Try traceroute a few times with the same destination (it is best if you try this over several days).  Is the same route taken  each time? Why does the information follow these routes? What implications do the routes shown have with respect to privacy issues?

3.    Let’s see how files are  stored on a computer. Windows users should go to http://www.hexworkshop.com/ and  download the  latest demo  version of Hex Workshop. Mac and  Linux users should go to  http://www.sweetscape.com/010editor/ and  download the  free trial version of the  010  Editor. Install the  software on your computer. Open  the hex editor. The left panel will contain addresses, the middle panel contains the bit values stored (in  hexadecimal)  and  the  next  panel  contains  possible  character values  for the bits stored. See the clip on Hex Workshop on Blackboard.

a.   Most files have  signatures so that  the  computer knows what  kind of a file it is  so let’s  see what  some common signatures  are.  Open  an  rtf file (Word can  make  these). What are the first 10 hex digits you see?

b.   Open  a pdf  file – what  are  the  first 10 hex  digits you see? Some files also have  trailers that tell the computer that the file has ended. What is the trailer for a pdf file in hex?

c.   Open  the  trent.gif file  available  in  the  Assignment  2 zipped  folder  on Blackboard. What are the first ten hex digits you see (i.e. the signature)?

d.   Let’s   try   one    last   type   of   file   (and    ASCII   text   file).       Open COIS2750H_A2.txt and then determine the signature for this type of file.

e.   A good  way to see if a file has been altered is to do a checksum. Open the  file  4550out-f18.doc posted to  Blackboard  in  Hex  Workshop. Go  to  Tools and then Generate Checksum. Select CRC (32 bit) (or CRC-32  in the 010 Editor) as your  algorithm, select Entire Document, and  generate the  checksum. How many  digits are  there  in the hex checksum? What are  the first 8 digits of the hex checksum? Do another checksum but this time select SHA-1 (160 bit) (or SHA-1 in 010 editor) as the algorithm. How many  digits are  there  in the hex checksum? What are the first 8 digits?

f.   Now let’s see what  effect changing the  content of the  file has on  the checksum. Copy  the  4550out-s18.doc file  to another file  such as test.doc (in case we need it in court).  Let’s first check  out the values of the checksums. Run the CRC (32 bit) and  SHA-1 (160 bit)?  algorithms on test.doc and  compare them to the results from Part  (e). What are  the first 8 digits of each checksum and  how much  did the checksums change?

g.   Now let’s see what  happens when  we change the  contents of our file copy.  From  within  MS Word,  change the  first  letter  of the  document text  from upper  case to lower case (i.e. Computing to computing), save it and  then  open test.doc in the  hex  editor. What  are  the  first 8 digits of the  hex  checksum using CRC  (32 bit)  and  what  are  the  first 8 digits in hex  using SHA-1  (160  bit)?  How much  did the checksums change from Part (f)?

h.    Now let’s  try to  recover corrupted files  using  our  hex  editor.  Try to open  the corrupted1.jpg file. Now use your hex editor and  try to figure out why it doesn’t open. Make  the  needed changes needed to open  the  file. What  did you do  to  fix  the  image? Describe the  picture. (Hint: use your  hex  editor to  open similar image file types and  check  their signatures).

i.    Now try to open  the  corrupted2.pdf file. Use your hex editor and  try to figure  out  why it doesn’t  open. Make  the  needed changes needed to open  the file. What did you do to fix the file? Describe the contents of the file.

4.   Let’s do some risk analysis on Trent's information assets. Trent stores many types of about  students and three  of these are: identification information (name, address, SIN, telephone numbers etc.), IT information (username, password, email services, etc.), and financial information (tuition, student loans, banking information, etc.)

a.  For EACH of the three  types of information describe who would want to illegally access this type of information and why?

b.  Consider what  the  impact would be  for EACH of the  three  types of information mentioned above if the information was improperly accessed or damaged. Is the  impact Catastrophic (expose school to serious lawsuits, loss of reputation, and/or  information cannot be  recreated), Serious (some exposure to lawsuits, loss of reputation and/or  information is expensive to recreate), or No Big Deal (small chance of lawsuits, information can  easily be  recreated). Be sure to justify your choice for each type of information.

c.  Now  consider  what  the  likelihood is that  EACH  type  of  information could be  accessed or damaged: not  likely, moderately likely, very  likely. Justify why you think the information fits in that category.

d.  Now let’s look at how we can  manage the  risk. Basic techniques are: avoiding  the  risk,  modifying  the  risk  (impact  and/or  likelihood),  transferring  the risk to others, and  accepting the  risk. What  techniques would you use for EACH of the types of information and  how would you implement it?

System Security Practices in Different Organization Scenario's

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