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Please define each concept and use an example to explain it. Information privacy, Informed consent, Fair use doctrine, Patents,Trademarks Utilitarianism and Ethical egoism

Please define each concept and use an example to explain it.

1.Information privacy
2.Informed consent
3.Fair use doctrine
4.Patents
5.Trademarks
6.Utilitarianism
7.Ethical egoism

1. Information privacy –

[blur] In the modern world of computing, information focuses on selectively secluding data regarding specific aspects or attributes of individuals, bodies or institutions. It’s a decision which focuses on the setting of boundaries and deciding on whether data or the collection of data, technology should be exposed to the public or only to a selected group of people or individuals. Usually, information privacy is guided by specific motivating factors and concerns in different fields such as the legal, political or economic. Information privacy is often guided by laws relating to freedom, the basic human rights and prevention of exploitation through trends such as data mining. Any information that may be said to be sensitive and personally identifiable can be categorized to exist in the realm of information privacy. [/blur]
2. Informed consent –

[blur] Informed consent or acceptance of the ramifications occurs whenever one party has requested permission from another prior to being part of any activity that is personally involving in nature. One of the instances, when this concept is applied, is under the healthcare intervention setting or in the media context. [/blur]

[blur] A doctor or a medical practitioner has to give a patient a chance to decide whether they would like to engage in any actions that would be personally involving citing all the information such as the facts, benefits, challenges, consequences and ramifications that an individual might face. A person that accepts the informed consent must show the capacity to possess the adequate reason faculties coupled with all the available information and facts that relate to a specific issue. [/blur]

3. Fair use doctrine –

[blur] The fair use doctrine or legal principle refers to the application and use of any materials that has been copyrighted without necessarily requiring the permission of the owner. However, the application of such material must be for transformative purposes. Some of the instances when an individual may make such commentary are when conducting criticism or conducting parody of copyrighted works. [/blur]

[blur] The fair use doctrine allows an individual to use another person’s work without the possibility of facing copyright infringement claims. The Fair use offers a broad scope of what is known to be in line with the transformative doctrine. Most courts have not limited this term to any specific application in reference to fair use, but its appearance has been applied in various instances and allows for more definitions to be applied. [/blur]
4. Patents –

[blur] Patenting or patents refers to issuing or offering specific exclusive right to an owner, inventor or an assignee in the quest of preventing other individuals from making, developing, using, selling or sharing without the permission from the individual that has been granted this power by the sovereign state. [/blur]

[blur] Patents relate to specific products, or processes that offer solutions that are technical to specific problems. A patent can also be viewed as the new way of undertaking issues, improvement on other methods, better understanding of how some objects function or simply having new components of a product. Usually, patents are issued for 20years after the date of incorporation although annual fees complement them. [/blur]
5. Trademarks –

[blur] a trademark can best be understood as the sign, an expression or a design that can best identify either the service or goods or one individual, business, organization or an enterprise from those of others in the same line of business. Trademarks are protected by the intellectual rights limiting the usage of such products to the owning parties. [/blur]

[blur] The setting of intellectual rights allows individuals to innovate and flourish since part of their invention which may be in the form of patent, copyright or trademark are under their mandate. [/blur]
6. Utilitarianism

[blur] is a theory of the normative ethics which focuses on offering a response to "what a man ought to do?" the main concepts of the theory attempts to review all the positives and negative actions that would be derived if an individual undertakes a specific action. [/blur]

[blur] The simplest version explaining this concept notes that an action can be considered to be morally right if in its consequences leads to happiness and the action may be considered to be morally wrong if its actions lead to pain or unhappiness. According to Jeremy the philosopher who coined the theory, under no circumstance is the moral principle to be considered absolute since the link between actions and their unhappy or happy outcomes depend on the different instances. [/blur]

7. Ethical egoism –

[blur] is also a normative theory that recommends an individual to only look at their interest. Ethical egoism lays the claim on how people should only act as opposed to how they might behave in the real sense. Ethical egoism as Ayn Rand and Max Stirner, explains that the primary goal of any individual should be to focus on one's interests as the primary goal. [/blur]

[blur] The theory has further been related to selfishness or the disregard for the interests of others by favoring one’s personal interests. A further argument presented by the advocates of the theory explains that an individual should only be concerned with the interests of others to the extent in which they contribute to their own individual gains. [/blur]

Please define each concept and use an example to explain it. Information privacy, Informed consent, Fair use doctrine, Patents,Trademarks Utilitarianism and Ethical egoism

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