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3 Step Process of Work Analysis - Sample task statements

PSYC 318- Chapter 3 assignment

This assignment is meant to give experience completing a detailed work analysis. For all of the questions, you may use the information provided, your personal knowledge and experience (e.g., from being a server or going to restaurants), and/or from ONET. There are no right or wrong answers to these questions; just do you best to complete each step.

3 Step Process of Work Analysis

Step 1 – Task Statements

Step 2 – KSAOs

Step 3 – Selection

Step 1a. Creating task statements

Below is a short sample of a response a server might provide if he/she were asked to be a SME in a work analysis interview.

“First the host(es) lets me know that a new table has been sat. I approach the table and greet them. I say welcome and tell them my name. If we have any specials running like happy hour I will tell them that. Then I ask if I can take their drink order. I might wright it down on a note pad if it’s a special request or a large party. I ring in the drinks on our computer system and get the soft drinks or iced tea myself. The bartender makes any alcoholic drinks. I use a tray to carry the drinks over and place them in front of the customers. Then I ask if anyone has menu questions…”

Using the above, create a few sample task statements. Remember that each task statement should be short, include information about what the worker does, to what or whom, what is produced, and with what materials, equipment, procedures, etc. You may also use your personal knowledge about servers, or information on ONET.

Possible example. Use Point of Sale system to place customer food orders to the kitchen.

Task statement 1:

Task statement 2:

Task statement 3:

Step 1b. Determine the importance or criticality of tasks.

Below is a list of common tasks for the job server found on ONET. Indicate the percentage of time spent doing each function. Percentages should not exceed 100%.

Task StatementPercentage of time
Present menus to patrons and answer questions about menu items, making recommendations upon request 
Check patrons' identification to ensure that they meet minimum age requirements for consumption of alcoholic beverages. 
Prepare hot, cold, and specialty drinks for patrons. 
Take orders from patrons for food or beverages. 
Write patrons' food orders on order slips, memorize orders, or enter orders into computers for transmittal to kitchen staff. 
Carry food and beverages to patrons using hands or trays. 
Check with customers to ensure that they are enjoying their meals and take action to correct any problems. 
Prepare checks that itemize and total meal costs and sales taxes. 
Stock service areas with supplies such as napkins and straws. 
Clean tables or counters after patrons have finished dining. 
Other: 
 ?100%

For this list of common tasks, indicate the importance of each. While this information normally comes from an SME, fill this outbased on your personal knowledge and best guess.

Task StatementImportance to overall job 
Present menus to patrons and answer questions about menu items, making recommendations upon request1      2      3      4      5 Minor                  Major0 none
Check patrons' identification to ensure that they meet minimum age requirements for consumption of alcoholic beverages.1      2      3      4      5 Minor                  Major0 none
Prepare hot, cold, and specialty drinks for patrons.1      2      3      4      5 Minor                  Major0 none
Take orders from patrons for food or beverages.1      2      3      4      5 Minor                  Major0 none
Write patrons' food orders on order slips, memorize orders, or enter orders into computers for transmittal to kitchen staff.1      2      3      4      5 Minor                  Major0 none
Carry food and beverages to patrons using hands or trays.1      2      3      4      5 Minor                  Major0 none
Check with customers to ensure that they are enjoying their meals and take action to correct any problems.1      2      3      4      5 Minor                  Major0 none
Prepare checks that itemize and total meal costs and sales taxes.1      2      3      4      5 Minor                  Major0 none
Stock service areas with supplies such as napkins and straws.1      2      3      4      5 Minor                  Major0 none
Clean tables or counters after patrons have finished dining.1      2      3      4      5 Minor                  Major0 none

Step 2a. Specify the KSAOs necessary for successful job performance.

Use the following definitions and guidelines. Note: correct categorization as a knowledge, skill, or ability is less important that producing a quality statement.

Knowledge: A body of information, usually of a factual or procedural nature, that makes for successful performance of a task.

Example: Knowledge of food production techniques including handling/storage

Skill: An individual’s level of proficiency or competency in performing a specific task.

Example: Active listening skills like giving full attention, understanding the points being made, asking questions as appropriate, and not interrupting at inappropriate times.

Ability: A more general, enduring trait or capability an individual possesses when he or she first begins to perform a task.

Example: Arm-Hand Steadiness — The ability to keep your hand and arm steady while moving your arm or while holding your arm and hand in one position.

Generate one additional example for each. Statements should be specific and descriptive

Knowledge:

Skill:

Ability:

Example KSAOs from O*Net for the job of serverHow important is this KSA to performing the job effectively?Does a new hire need this on the first day?Does an individual with more of this KSA perform better than one with less?
Speaking — Talking to others to convey information effectively.0 – Not important 1 – Somewhat important 2 – Important 3 – Essential 4 - CriticalYes   No0 – Not at all better 1 – Slightly better 2 – Moderately better 3 – Considerably better
Customer and Personal Service — Knowledge of principles and processes for providing customer and personal services.0 – Not important 1 – Somewhat important 2 – Important 3 – Essential 4 - CriticalYes   No0 – Not at all better 1 – Slightly better 2 – Moderately better 3 – Considerably better
Service Orientation — Actively looking for ways to help people.0 – Not important 1 – Somewhat important 2 – Important 3 – Essential 4 - CriticalYes   No0 – Not at all better 1 – Slightly better 2 – Moderately better 3 – Considerably better
Time Sharing – Ability to shift back and forth between two or more activities0 – Not important 1 – Somewhat important 2 – Important 3 – Essential 4 - CriticalYes   No0 – Not at all better 1 – Slightly better 2 – Moderately better 3 – Considerably better
Trunk Strength — Ability to use your abdominal and lower back muscles to support part of the body repeatedly or continuously over time without 'giving out' or fatiguing.0 – Not important 1 – Somewhat important 2 – Important 3 – Essential 4 – CriticalYes   No0 – Not at all better 1 – Slightly better 2 – Moderately better 3 – Considerably better
Auditory Attention – Ability to focus on a single source of sound in the presence of other distracting sounds0 – Not important 1 – Somewhat important 2 – Important 3 – Essential 4 - CriticalYes   No0 – Not at all better 1 – Slightly better 2 – Moderately better 3 – Considerably better

Step 2b. Determine the importance of each KSAO

Step 2c. Determine the importance of each KSAO

Example: For each job task, mark which KSAOs are necessary to perform it

 KSAOs
TaskSpeakingCustomer/ Personal ServiceService OrientationTime SharingTrunk StrengthAuditory Attention
Present menus to patrons and answer questions about menu items, making recommendations upon request      
Check patrons' identification to ensure that they meet minimum age requirements for consumption of alcoholic beverages.      
Prepare hot, cold, and mixed drinks for patrons, and chill bottles of wine      
Take orders from patrons for food or beverages.      
Write patrons' food orders on order slips, memorize orders, or enter orders into computers for transmittal to kitchen staff.      
Serve food or beverages to patrons, and prepare or serve specialty dishes at tables as required.      
Prepare checks that itemize and total meal costs and sales taxes.      
Collect payments from customers.      
Clean tables or counters after patrons have finished dining.      

Step 3. Determine the Selection Procedure Content.

Think about these questions:

•         Can we assess KSAO’s from previous work experience? (resume?)

•         Can applicants be observed performing the job or part of it? (work sample?)

•         Would a written test be suitable for eliciting desired reactions? (paper/pencil test? Situational Judgement Test? Personality assessment?)

•         Would giving job applicants an opportunity to express themselves orally cover the KSAO requirements? (interview)

•         Can the assessment method produce reliable and valid data for evaluating applicants’ KSAOs?

•         Is the method practical and affordable?

Based on your thoughts to the above, make some suggestions for how the following KSAOs might be evaluated in a job applicant. One assessment method (e.g., resume, interview) may cover more than one KSAO. Remember that the most important KSAOs should be more highly represented in the assessments than less important ones (go back to step 2).

Speaking ____________________________________________________________________

Customer/personal Service_______________________________________________________

Service Orientation ____________________________________________________________

Time Sharing__________________________________________________________________

Trunk Strength_________________________________________________________________

Auditory Attention_____________________________________________________________

3 Step Process of Work Analysis - Sample task statements

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