1. WHAT IS SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY?
a) Describe the benefits of a social psychological approach to understanding why people behave the way they do. That is, how does social psychology go beyond basic human intuition? Why is this important?
b). In your own words, define the term ‘construal.’ Describe two different ways in which a person might construe the same situation.
c) Describe two aspects of behavior that appear to be universal, meaning that they are common across many different cultures. Why, according to the evolutionary perspective, would different cultures manifest these commonalities?
d) Using two of your own examples, outline the three steps people take in their cognitive judgement of people with whom they starkly disagree.
2.THE SOCIAL SELF
a) In your own words, describe social comparison theory. When will one engage in upward versus downward comparison?
b) Challenge the idea that one’s level of self-esteem (high versus low) is the only aspect of self-esteem that relates to well-being or outcomes.
c) In your own words, explain self-discrepancy theory and the various “selves” to which this theory refers. Based on the video, explain how the economy can dictate gender roles.
d) Outline the 20-statements test, and their breakdown into the three types of self-statements. What evidence exists to support changes to self-definition over the decades?
3.SOCIAL COGNITION and ATTRIBUTION
a). In your own words, describe two original examples of how a person could apply the wrong schemas to situations. In your examples, clearly explain the processes that led to the use of the wrong schema.
b) Give two examples of variables that influence the accuracy of second-hand information. Then, for each, describe a situation in everyday life where it could occur.
c) In what ways are attribution and impression formation processes of Americans and Asians similar? In what ways are they dissimilar?
d) In your own words, define the term ‘counterfactual thought.’ Explain the circumstances under which it is most likely to occur. Summarize the findings of Kokavec and Cramer (2018).
4. ATTITUDES and PERSUASION
a). Explain the embodied nature of emotion and cognition and describe two research studies that show the relation between bodily movements and attitudes.
b) Describe the basics of terror management theory and identify two situations in which this theory might be useful in explaining people’s attitudes or behaviors.
c) Outline two factors that make it challenging for researchers to accurately measure the effect that the media has on our attitudes. Explain why these factors present a challenge to the research.
d) What are the key differences among the various self-report measurement tools, and what are their main challenges?